Waste heat minimisation and recovery is a significant opportunity to reduce fuel consumption and improve efficiency. It can also mean lower maintenance costs and improved equipment productivity.
Generation technologies that harness waste heat, such as co-generation and waste heat to power (WHP), have the potential to produce electricity below retail prices. These technologies reduce dependency on external energy inputs.
Identify heat losses
Before implementing waste heat recovery technologies, identify heat losses common to heating equipment. These include:
- flue/exhaust gas releases
- air infiltration
- wall conduction
- radiation in existing furnaces, ovens, and boilers
System pipework and storage should be insulated.
Maintenance and monitoring
Energy savings can be achieved through maintenance and monitoring of heat recovery technologies and systems.
Monitor performance of waste heat recovery technologies to ensure that you are optimising energy and financial savings.
Ensure the system is tested under a range of loads and in line with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Ensure a regular maintenance schedule is conducted in-house or by the equipment supplier.
Wider application of waste heat recovery
The US Department of Energy has found many potential energy savings exist through the latest heat exchange technologies. Advances in construction have yielded equipment that can be used in environments previously too extreme.
Materials used in the construction of new heat exchangers have made them more resistant to corrosion. Advanced design has also made them more tolerant of higher temperatures and pressures. This means more heat from the process can be captured and utilised leading to energy savings.
An example of this is the manufacture of nitric acid or sodium hydroxide (caustic soda).
Low temperature waste heat recovery
New technologies are being developed to address opportunities for low temperature waste heat recovery and conversion. One possibility is to convert waste heat into electricity, to be consumed onsite.
One of the solutions to generate electricity from low temperature heat otherwise dispersed into the environment is the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). With plants available in a wide range of sizes, there are already a number of successful installations of ORC in cement, glass and metal sectors worldwide.
According to the Australian Institute for Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heating (AIRAH), the economics of heat pumps in the industrial context have improved due to gas price escalation and early-stage economies of scale.
Waste heat as low as 45°C can easily be recovered by special heat pumps to produce output temperatures in excess of 100°C, suitable for commercial and industrial applications traditionally dependent on gas for heating.
Use of heat pumps may even prove a stepping stone towards complete replacement of boilers and steam systems in the long term. Research is underway to develop systems capable of more than 160°C.
Clean Energy Finance Corporation - Wodonga Abbatoir Wodonga Abattoir has enhanced its energy supply stability and achieved greater control over electricity fluctuations with a tri-generation plant.
Energy Efficiency Council Co-generation and tri-generation systems installed at sites including office buildings, hotels and leisure centres.
Energy Power Systems – Crown Entertainment The 5.5MW co-generation plant at the Crown Hotel complex has delivered estimated energy savings of more than $500,000 per year.
Energy Power Systems – Launceston General Hospital The co-generation plant at the Launceston Hospital has provided more than 80% of its base-load power and a significant amount of its thermal energy requirements.
Goldman Energy Co-generation and tri-generation solutions for aquatic centres, a recital hall, jet base facility and other buildings.
Inoplex Victorian farms that are meeting their power requirements using generators that run on biogas produced from animal waste.
Ironbark sustainability Comparative advantages of cogeneration versus high efficiency boilers and solar PV for an indoor aquatic centre.
Simons Green Energy Various building types including clubs, hotels, offices and residential complexes.
Waste Heat Recovery: Technology and Opportunities in US Industry (PDF 4.7MB) US Department of Energy