A large range of research and analysis has been conducted to inform the development of policy and programs, assess the impacts of current requirements and model future interventions. These reports are intended to be used by industry and government to guide and inform the development of future policies and programs, including initiatives under the National Energy Productivity Plan.
Modelling savings by increasing building code standards
Improving energy efficiency requirements for commercial buildings in the National Construction Code is a measure within the National Energy Productivity Plan. The Australian Government commissioned research to analyse the range of cost-effective savings in the energy consumption of new buildings that could be achieved in Australia by 2015 and 2020, relative to buildings compliant with the 2010 version of the Building Code of Australia.
This report was updated in 2016 using new electricity and building construction cost data, covering both commercial and residential buildings.
The Australian Building Codes Board will review energy efficiency standards for new non-residential buildings with a view to raising standards in the next revision of the National Construction Code due in 2019.
Establishing an industry learning rate for new non-residential building construction
An issue critical to understanding the costs and benefits of increased energy efficiency stringency in the National Construction Code is that of Learning Rates. This is the rate at which the extra costs that occur delivering new or innovative products decrease over time as firms adapt, adopt new technologies and revise their designs and/or production processes. How quickly this occurs is currently not well understood in the Australian commercial building construction industry.
To understand this issue the Australian Government commissioned a report that explored both how other countries treat the issue and the best methods for establishing a learning rate that could be used in the industry.
The three methods proposed are:
- Working with quantity surveyors to identify how key cost elements relating to energy efficiency have evolved over time.
- Capturing data on how the costs and cost premiums associated with ‘beyond Code’ energy performance ratings (NABERS, Green Star, CBD) have evolved through time.
- Taking a top-down approach examining historical trends in the value of construction work done to show changes in actual costs per unit of work over time.
Commercial Buildings Baseline Study
This project was commissioned by the Australian Government in 2011 to improve the availability of quantitative information on commercial buildings in Australia, their energy use and associated greenhouse emissions
This research project involved the creation of a bottom-up model of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with commercial buildings in Australia. It covers the majority of commercial building types including stand-alone offices (base buildings, tenancies, whole buildings), hotels, shopping centres (base buildings, tenancies, whole buildings), supermarkets (tenancies, whole buildings), hospitals, schools, vocational education and training buildings, universities and public buildings (including galleries, museums, libraries and law courts).
In addition, a de-identified version of the model was created, segregated by building type, to enable interested parties to access the data collected, without compromising confidentiality of the buildings included in the database. The data contained in the model provides estimates of the building stock, energy consumption by fuel and end use (where possible), and greenhouse gas emissions by state/territory and region, from 1999 to 2020, with 2009 as the base year. It draws on a substantial amount of actual data from a variety of sources.
Mid-tier commercial office buildings research project
The uptake of energy efficiency improvements in the mid-tier sector has been slow due to a range of factors including difficulty accessing capital, a diverse ownership profile which is hard to reach (including foreign investors, families and not-for-profit organisations), lower rental returns from smaller/older buildings and a lack of on-site facilities managers. This research project was commissioned by the Australian Government to gain a greater understanding of how to improve the energy productivity within the mid-tier commercial office building sector.
This project aimed to quantify the energy productivity opportunities and identify the barriers to implementation of energy efficiency initiatives in Australia’s mid-tier commercial office building sector. It included preliminary research, an interactive workshop and a pathway report prepared by the Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA).
Changes Associated with Efficient Dwellings project
This report was commissioned by the Department of the Environment and Energy who have managed this project on behalf of all Australian jurisdictions under Measure 31.2 of the National Productivity Plan. The report contributes to research in the residential buildings sector, by conducting an independent study into, and providing examples from the building industry of, the changes that have been implemented and are associated with constructing more energy efficient dwellings.
Residential Buildings Regulatory Impact Statement Methodology
This report was commissioned by the Department of the Environment and Energy who have managed the project on behalf all Australian jurisdictions under Measure 31.2 of the National Energy Productivity Plan. The report provides a methodology for evaluating the benefits and costs of possible future increases in the stringency of the energy efficiency provisions in the National Construction Code.
Initial Scoping Work for Implementation of NEPP #31—Advancing the National Construction Code
This report was commissioned by the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science as an input to Measure 31 in the National Energy Productivity Plan, 'Advancing the National Construction Code'. The report identifies two prioritised short-term research programs that could be undertaken to inform a future regulation impact statement (RIS)—that is likely to be undertaken in early 2017—relating to possible changes to the energy performance requirements for residential buildings in the 2019 edition of the National Construction Code.
Pathway to 2020 for Increased Stringency in New Building Energy Efficiency Standards
This study is an update of the findings of the building benefit cost analysis, for residential buildings only, undertaken in pitt&sherry's report Pathway to 2020 for Increased Stringency in New Building Energy Efficiency Standards: Benefit Cost Analysis (2012). The original report was commissioned by the former Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency as a contribution to the National Building Energy Framework measure described in the former National Strategy on Energy Efficiency.
In December 2015 the COAG Energy Council agreed to the National Energy Productivity Plan which includes a measure to advance the building energy performance requirements in the National Construction Code.
The Department of Industry, Innovation and Science commissioned this update on the benefit cost analysis contained in the 2012 report, for residential buildings, to help inform potential policy settings for future.
House Energy Efficiency Inspections Project
Concerns were raised in various forums that the energy efficiency features of houses that are required to achieve the minimum energy efficiency standards in the National Construction Code (NCC) (Australian Building Codes Board, 2015), e.g. insulation and weather sealing, are often poorly installed by builders, thus leading to houses that have lower energy efficiency performance than expected. There has also been little data collected on newly built houses to quantify air‐tightness and assess the quality of installation of insulation and heating/cooling ductwork.
This study investigated new house construction around Australia to gain insight into the quality of house construction with regard to the energy efficiency aspects of air‐tightness and quality of installation of insulation and heating/cooling ductwork and involved recruiting 20 houses in each capital city around Australia (Darwin was not included).
Response to the Environment and Communications References Committee report
The Senate referred the inquiry into the performance and management of electricity network companies to the Environment and Communications References Committee on 2 October 2014. The Committee presented an interim report on 20 April 2015 and its final report on 5 June 2015.
The Australian Government formally presented its response to the Committee’s reports on 27 April 2016.
The Evaluation of the 5-Star Energy Efficiency Standard for Residential Buildings
CSIRO was contracted to evaluate the effectiveness of the 5-star energy efficiency standard for houses introduced in 2006, compared to the previous 3.5 to 4 star standard. 'The Evaluation of the 5-Star Energy Efficiency Standard for Residential Buildings is the first evaluation of energy efficiency standards for houses in Australia based on comparison of actual energy use. The study monitored the energy use of more than 400 houses (with around half the houses undergoing more detailed monitoring of heating and cooling) in Brisbane, Melbourne and Adelaide, from June 2012 to February 2013.
- Energy data Australian Government
- Commercial Building Disclosure (CBD) Australian Government
- Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) Australian Government
- National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS) NSW Government on behalf of Australian, state and territory governments
- Green Building Council of Australia GBCA
- Report—Mid-tier Commercial Office Buildings Pathway Project GBCA
- Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB)